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Preventing mangrove loss and degradation is thus an important component of efforts to postpartum depression definition dsm v generic 10mg amitriptyline overnight delivery mitigate climate change (Murdiyarso et al anxiety 9 months after baby order 75 mg amitriptyline with mastercard. Mangroves also provide waterpurification and erosion-prevention services anxiety united cheap 50mg amitriptyline overnight delivery, protect coastal areas against storms anxiety zaps buy 25 mg amitriptyline visa, and offer opportunities for educational and recreational activities, including ecotourism (Barbier et al. They provide a potential refuge for corals threatened by rising temperatures and ocean acidification. State of knowledge Over recent years there have been a number of efforts to assess the global status and trends of mangrove ecosystems. The increasing availability of openly accessible high spatio-temporal resolution data has allowed the emergence of a systematic approach to mangrove mapping that reduces uncertainties and promotes consistency in the reporting of status and trends (see examples and references below). Losses continue in many regions, although at a slower rate globally (Hamilton and Casey, 2016; Strong and Minnemeyer, 2015). Numerous attempts have been made over recent decades to estimate the total global area covered by mangroves. Results have varied due to the multiplicity of different datasets used and methodologies applied. Using the highest spatio-temporal resolution data available, Hamilton and Casey (2016) found a global mangrove area of 81 849 km2 in 2012 and projected a figure of 81 485 km2 for 2014. The same authors report a loss of 1 646 km2 globally over the period 2000 to 2012, which amounts to 1. The region with the greatest rate of loss is Southeast Asia, where an estimated 3. Valiela, Bowen and York (2001) estimated that aquaculture accounted for 52 percent of mangrove loss globally during the 1980s and 1990s, with shrimp farming alone accounting for 38 percent. This provides real opportunities to reforest abandoned shrimp farms and other degraded mangrove areas so that they can again support productive coastal fisheries and aquaculture. For example, under the so-called Tambak Tumpangsari system in Indonesia, mangroves supply nutrients to plankton in aquaculture ponds and also reduce the vulnerability of the ponds to strong winds and tidal floods during at least part of the life cycle of the aquaculture venture (Van Lavieren et al. Climate change is also a threat, as rising sea levels, erosion and increased frequency of storms all have serious impacts on mangrove ecosystems (Blankespoor, Dasgupta and Lange, 2017; Mumby et al. Seagrass beds support high rates of production in valuable commercial and artisanal fisheries, including those targeting finfish such as snappers, emperors, rabbitfish, surgeonfish and flounder, molluscs such as conch, oysters, mussels, scallops and clams, crustacea such as shrimp, lobster and crab, and echinoderms such as starfish, sea urchins and sea cucumbers (Barbier et al. A global-scale review of the contribution of seagrass ecosystems to commercial, artisanal and recreational fisheries (Nordlund et al. Declines in fish production following the loss of seagrass beds have been recorded, for example in Australia (Coles et al. However, there have been cases in which loss of seagrass did not lead to a loss of fishery yield (Saenger, Gartside and Funge-Smith, forthcoming). For example, largescale losses of common eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows in Europe and North America in the 1930s, attributed to a slime mould parasite, did not cause a decline in fish catches as the loss of the eelgrass led to the exposure of rocky substrate that was colonized by macro-algae that served as an alternative habitat (Heck, Hays and Orth, 2003). Seagrass beds contribute to nutrient cycling and water purification, help to protect coastal areas by stabilizing sediments, sequestrate carbon and serve as key habitats for marine biodiversity (Barbier et al. The international monitoring programmes Seagrass Watch71 and Seagrass Net72 keep track of the status of seagrass resources at sites around the world (335 sites in 19 countries and 122 sites in 33 countries, respectively). Improving knowledge of the status and trends of seagrass ecosystems will require better standardization of sampling and monitoring methods (Duarte et al. There is also a great need for more detailed research on specific seagrass habitats, their links to other ecosystems such as mangroves and their influence on fisheries (Saenger, Gartside and Funge-Smith, forthcoming). Status and trends Seagrass beds cover an estimated 344 958 km2 across 128 countries and territories globally (Figure 4. There is a general consensus that the global extent of seagrass beds is contracting and that a range of human activities and natural factors are driving this process (Coles et al. However, changes in the extent of seagrass habitat are well documented only in areas such as Europe, the United States of America and Australia and a few specific locations in Africa, Asia and South America (Duarte et al. It has been estimated that the area covered by seagrass has declined by 29 percent in the last 100 years (Waycott et al. Twenty-two of the assessed populations show a decreasing trend, 3 an increasing trend and 31 a stable trend. Threats such as eutrophication, turbidity and sediment discharge are often being exacerbated by poor land-use and water-use practices, including watershed deforestation, clearing of coastal forests, inappropriate management of fertilizers, dredging and destructive fishing practices (Ocean Health Index, 2018; Waycott et al.

In many congested energy-constrained regions what us bipolar depression amitriptyline 50 mg visa, offshore wind plants might be necessary to depression hyperbole and a half purchase 25mg amitriptyline with amex supplement growing demand and dwindling fossil supplies depression kid cheap amitriptyline 10mg without prescription. In the United States depression test buzzfeed purchase amitriptyline 75 mg online, nine offshore project proposals in state and federal waters are in various stages of development. Several states are pursuing competitive solicitations for offshore wind projects approval. Because offshore wind energy tends to take advantage of extensive land-based experience and mature offshore oil and gas practices, offshore cost reductions are not expected to be as great as land-based reductions spanning the past two decades. However, offshore wind technology is considerably less mature than land-based wind energy, so it does have significant potential for future cost reduction. These cost reductions are achievable through technology development and innovation, implementation and customization of offshore oil and gas practices, and learning-curve reductions that take advantage of more efficient manufacturing and deployment processes and procedures. The architecture of the baseline offshore turbine and drivetrain comprises a threebladed upwind rotor, typically 90 m to 107 m in diameter. Tip speeds of offshore turbines are slightly higher than those of land-based turbines, which have speeds of 80 m/s or more. The drivetrain consists of a gearbox generally run with variablespeed torque control that can achieve generator speeds between 1,000 and 1,800 rpm. The offshore tower height is generally 80 m, which is lower than that of land-based towers, because wind shear profiles are less steep, tempering the advantage of tower height. The offshore foundation system baseline technology uses monopiles at nominal water depths of 20 m. Monopiles are large steel tubes with a wall thickness of up to 60 mm and diameters of 6 m. The embedment depth varies with soil type, but a typical North Sea installation must be embedded 25 m to 30 m below the mud line. The monopile extends above the surface where a transition piece with a flange to fasten the tower is leveled and grouted. Its foundation requires a specific class of installation equipment for driving the pile into the seabed and lifting the turbine and tower into place. Mobilization of the infrastructure and logistical support for a large offshore wind plant accounts for a significant portion of the system cost. Turbines in offshore applications are arranged in arrays that take advantage of the prevailing wind conditions measured at the site. Turbines are spaced to minimize aggregate power plant energy losses, interior plant turbulence, and the cost of cabling between turbines. The power grid connects the output from each turbine, where turbine transformers step up the generator and the power electronics voltage to a distribution voltage of about 34 kilovolts (kV). The distribution system collects the power from each turbine at a central substation where the voltage is stepped up and transmitted to shore through a number of buried, high-voltage subsea cables. A shore-based interconnection point might be used to step up the voltage again before connecting to the power grid. Because there is a high degree of interdependence among them, they should be considered a sequence of development that builds from a shallow water foundation of experience and knowledge to the complexities of deeper water. To lower costs for offshore wind, the focus must be on lowering the balance-of-station costs. Turbine improvements that make turbines more reliable, more maintainable, more rugged, and larger, will still be needed to achieve cost goals. Although none of these improvements are likely to lower turbine costs, the net result will lower overall system costs. Short-term research addresses impediments that prevent initial industry projects from proceeding and helps sharpen the focus for long-term research. Long-term research involves a more complex development process resulting in improvements that can help lower offshore lifecycle system costs. This type of exclusion study could be part of a regional programmatic environmental impact statement and is necessary for a full assessment of the offshore resource (Dhanju, Whitaker, and Kempton 2006).

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It is a way that men can bond publicly around misogyny whether they know it or not depression feelings generic amitriptyline 75 mg without a prescription. We do not perceive them as problematic because we are so used to depression in dogs trusted 10 mg amitriptyline having our dominant culture mirror these attitudes depression test how depressed am i amitriptyline 10 mg discount. The sexual politics of meat also works at another level: the ongoing superstition that meat gives strength and that men need meat depression groups 25mg amitriptyline with amex. Just as a proliferation of images in which women and animals are absent referents appeared in the past ten years, so there has been a resurgence of "beef madness" in which meat is associated with masculinity. As an article in the New York Times announced shortly after the appearance of the Sexual Politics of Meat: "Scotch and beef are served in a new shrine to trousers. Sure, they want money and power, but only because of what those can win them-sex and steak. Both are closely related, as muscular, full-bodied pleasures of the flesh, and each ignites desire for the other. A hot, juicy, blood-red steak or a succulently thick hamburger induces an overall sense of well-being and a surge of selfassurance that is sure to make him feel good about himself and by association, you. That is especially true in this country, where beef is the quintessential macho fare. The sexual politics of meat traps everyone-"him," "you," and the animals who are supposed to be consumed. When a book features an idea originally conceived twenty-five years ago, the question appropriately arises: "Are these insights still timely During the past decade, the sexual politics of meat has experienced much cultural expression. The argument in chapter 1 that meat is part of the cultural mythology of maleness, can be found in diverse aspects of popular culture: From a Seinfeld episode that features the comedian desperately trying to hide the fact that he is not eating meat so his date will not mistake him for a "wimp," to the examples from Cosmopolitan and New Woman, the message continues to be that men are supposed to eat meat and that meat is associated with virility. In the ads and menus and match covers and billboards that have appeared in the past ten years, the aspects of the sexual politics of meat proposed in chapter 2-the overlapping, interconnected oppression of women and nonhuman animals-are evident. Anyone familiar with the first edition of this book knows that the dedication was to six billion animals slaughtered for food in the United States. Over the past decade, an immense amount of documentation has appeared confirming the healthful nature of a complete vegetarian diet-one that does not rely on any animal products. Why, given the proven health benefits of a low-fat, low-cholesterol, high-fiber diet, and the associations of meat eating with deaths or illness from "mad cow disease," E. Why is it that now, here in Dallas, the waiting time for popular "steak-houses" on a weekend can be two to three hours Our culture accepts all the aspects of the sexual politics of meat, including the basic one that people need meat to stay healthy (read: strong). Moreover, government support of meat eating is clear as the politicians launch sexist Preface to the Tenth Anniversary Edition 19 attacks on "welfare queens" but not on the "cowboy welfare kings" whose cattle raising is subsidized by the federal government. In the past ten years, our awareness increased about the immense environmental consequences of factory farming and the impact of this dehumanizing treatment on animals and their human tenders. Meat eaters like to believe that they are doing what complete vegetarians do-eating humanely-without actually doing what complete vegetarians do-not eating animal products. We believe both that we are being kind to the animals and that they like how we are treating them. Or we like to believe that the animals have no consciousness of suffering and that their plight should not affect us. To paraphrase Rousseau, everywhere animals are in chains, but we image them as free. Thus animals and women are not only depicted as free, though they are not, but as sexually free. Ironically, when I finally finished my book after fifteen years of working on it, a few reviewers accused me of trying to take advantage of the faddishness of vegetarianism in the late 1980s. The Sexual Politics of Meat appeared to be "trendy" because of what it was actually doing, offering a synthesis that made sense of two seemingly divergent impulses-justice for women and concern about animals. It is not that this book was the first feminist book to treat vegetarianism seriously as a political act of resistance, though it does do that. And it is not that I challenged animal advocates and vegetarians to become aware of sexual politics, though I do that as well. It was that the book heralds an exciting movement in scholarship that honors connections, recognizes overlapping oppressions, and works to challenge the fragmentation of activism.

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This allowed successful mitigation or reduced-catch measures to bipolar depression symptoms in women buy cheap amitriptyline 75 mg on line be implemented mood disorder due to medical condition buy 75mg amitriptyline visa, helping to bipolar depression 74501 amitriptyline 10 mg mastercard stabilize fisheries income (Velarde la depression test purchase amitriptyline 75mg free shipping, Ezcurra and Anderson, 2013). Several European countries mention monitoring efforts for micro-organisms (including bacteria, viruses and protists) and fungi, including groups that are of importance to food and agriculture, such as mycorrhizal fungi, soil microbes, planktonic microbes and rumen microbes. Despite these various initiatives, however, countries generally make it very clear that there are many gaps and weaknesses in monitoring programmes and information systems for associated biodiversity. Even where demographic data on components of associated biodiversity are collected, it often remains unclear how these relate to the geographical distribution of production systems, which makes it more difficult to draw conclusions regarding possible effects on food and agriculture. Lack of capacity is widely reported by countries to be a significant constraint to the monitoring of associated biodiversity. Some countries indicate that much of the monitoring work that does take place is done by (expert or non-expert) volunteers. For example, Finland reports that initiatives of this kind account for approximately 70 percent of all its biodiversity-related monitoring work. Monitoring of butterflies and birds is largely volunteer-based in most countries in Europe. Efforts are also being made to develop methodologies based on indicator species that can be used even where capacity is limited. For example, the Belau National Museum, in cooperation with the Palau Conservation Society and the Palau International Coral Reef Centre, is reported to have completed preliminary studies aimed at identifying bird species that could be used as indicators for near-shore environmental quality and ecosystem health. The figures refer to the risk statuses assigned to species in the country reports. Seventy-nine percent of the responses indicate Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Threatened status, and 82 percent of distinct species mentioned fall into these categories. A total of 2 074 responses, from 48 countries and covering 1 900 distinct species, were provided. More than half of these responses come from three countries, Bangladesh, Mexico and Panama. Plants account for 1 032 (63 percent) of rulus), the leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys the responses referring to species that are classed coriacea), Duvalia sulcate (a succulent plant), as Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable Globularia arabica (a low shrub), the house finch Agricultural intensification and expansion Changes in land use or Threatened, birds for 180 (11 percent), fish for (Haemorhous mexicanus), the hippopotamus Climate change Deforestation 125 (8 percent), mammals for 83 (5 percent), fungiloss (Hippopotamus amphibius),poaching Habitat alteration and Hunting and the African mahogfor 74 (5 percent), reptiles for 61 (4 percent), arthro- any (Khaya senegalensis), the ocelot (Leopardus Overexploitation Pests, diseases and invasive species Pollution Water cycle alteration pods25 for 37 (2 percent), molluscs for 22 (1 percent), pardalis), the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys Other Not reported amphibians for 13 (1 percent) and sea cucumbers for olivacea), the pomegranate (Punica granatum), the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), the white4 (less than 1 percent). The species most frequently mentioned, for headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis), biznauany risk category, include the western honey gita (Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus) (a cactus) bee (Apis mellifera), the green turtle (Chelonia and the thirsty thorn (Vachellia seyal). For the majority of species listed by countries, mydas), the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricate), the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta no specific indication is provided that they are caretta), the West African ebony (Diospyros being deliberately managed for their contribumespiliformis), the Himalayan yew (Taxus wal- tions to the supply of ecosystem services to food lichiana), the baobab (Adansonia digitata), the and agriculture. Countries made extensive use Eurasian skylark (Alauda arvensis), the European of national red lists as sources of information. In some cases, ecosystems included in red lists were matched with the production-system cat25 Arthropod species mentioned include insects, spiders egories used in the country-reporting process and crustaceans. Overall, for all production systems and all types of associated biodiversity combined, 33 percent of responses indicate decreasing trends, 15 percent stable trends and 19 percent increasing trends; 33 percent indicate that information is unknown or not applicable. Trends in invertebrate, vertebrate and plant species providing supporting and regulating ecosystem services in various production systems are better assessed. Countries were invited to report on changes in regulating or supporting services detected in specific production-system categories over the preceding ten years,27 to describe the trends reported and, if possible, to provide information on baseline levels, measurements and indicators used, extent of change, likely cause(s) and references to sources of information (Table 4. A total of 46 countries (51 percent of those that provided country reports), including countries from all regions, provided information on trends in at least one ecosystem service. For individual categories of ecosystem services, the numbers Specifically, countries were invited to provide qualitative assessments of trends (strongly increasing, increasing, stable, decreasing and strongly decreasing) or to indicate that information was not known or not applicable. Specifically, countries were invited to provide qualitative assessments of trends (strongly increasing, increasing, stable, decreasing and strongly decreasing) or to indicate that information was not known or not applicable. The next seven sections discuss the status and trends of associated biodiversity involved in the supply of particular categories of ecosystem services, based on information from the country reports and other sources. Levels of pollinator dependence vary significantly among crops, with the highest levels found mainly in fruits, vegetables and nuts (ibid. While until recently it was thought that animal pollination does not contribute to pollination under water, it has been found that marine invertebrates contribute to the pollination of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (Van Tussenbroek et al.

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The wind resource potential at 50 m above ground on land and offshore Identifying the good wind potential at high elevations in states such as Indiana and off the shore of both coasts is important because it drives developers to depression symptoms nz best amitriptyline 50mg find ways to mood disorder exam questions order amitriptyline 50 mg line harvest this energy depression symptoms emedicine effective amitriptyline 10mg. Many of the opportunities being pursued through advanced 24 20% Wind Energy by 2030 Figure 2-2 mood disorder and alcohol buy discount amitriptyline 10 mg line. Comparison of the wind energy resource at 50 m, 70 m, and 100 m for Indiana 2 technology are intended to achieve higher elevations, where the resource is much greater, or to access extensive offshore wind resources. Typically installed in arrays of 30 to 150 machines, the average turbine installed in the United States in 2006 can produce approximately 1. Turbine power output is controlled by rotating the blades around their long axis to change the angle of attack with respect to the relative wind as the blades spin around the rotor hub. These wind sensors, along with sensors on the generator and drivetrain, also tell the blade pitch controller how to regulate the power output and rotor speed to prevent overloading the structural components. The turbine will pitch or feather the blades to stop power production and rotation at about 22. Most utility-scale turbines are upwind machines, meaning that they operate with the blades upwind of the tower to avoid the blockage created by the tower. The amount of energy in the wind available for extraction by the turbine increases with the cube (the third power) of wind speed; thus, a 10% increase in wind speed creates a 33% increase in available energy. A turbine can capture only a portion of this cubic increase in energy, though, because power above the level for which the electrical system has been designed, referred to as the rated power, is allowed to pass through the rotor. But land-based turbine size is not expected to grow as dramatically in the future as it has in the past. Larger sizes are physically possible; however, the logistical constraints of transporting the components via highways and of obtaining cranes large enough to lift the components present a major economic barrier that is difficult to overcome. The data show that turbines in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) database (Wiser and Bolinger 2007) that began operating commercially before 1998 have an average capacity factor of about 22%. The turbines that began commercial operation after 1998, however, show an increasing capacity factor trend, reaching 36% in 2004 and 2005. The cost of wind-generated electricity has dropped dramatically since 1980, when the first commercial wind plants began operating in California. Wind energy prices have increased since 2002 for the following reasons (Wiser and Bolinger 2007): z Shortages of turbines and components, resulting from the dramatic recent growth of the wind industry in the United States and Europe the weakening U. With the exception of battery chargers and rare experiments with larger electricity-producing machines, the windmills of 1850 and even 1950 differed very little from the primitive devices from which they were derived. In the 1980s, the practical approach of using low-cost parts from agricultural and boat-building industries produced machinery that usually worked, but was heavy, high-maintenance, and grid-unfriendly. Little was known about structural loads caused by turbulence, which led to the frequent and early failure of critical parts, such as yaw drives. Additionally, the small-diameter machines were deployed in the California wind corridors, mostly in densely packed arrays that were not aesthetically pleasing in such a rural setting. These densely packed arrays also often blocked the wind from neighboring turbines, producing a great deal of turbulence for the downwind machines. Recognizing these issues, wind operators and manufacturers have worked to develop better machines with each new generation of designs. Drag-based devices and simple lift-based designs gave way to experimentally designed and tested high-lift rotors, many with full-span pitch control. Blades that had once been made of sail or sheet metal progressed through wood to advanced fiberglass composites. Designs moved from mechanical cams and linkages that feathered or furled a machine to high-speed digital controls. Airfoils, which are now tested in wind tunnels, are designed for insensitivity to surface roughness and dirt. Increased understanding of aeroelastic loads and the ability to incorporate this knowledge into finite element models and structural dynamics codes make the machines of today more robust but also more flexible and lighter on a relative basis than those of a decade ago. Each group of wind turbine designers has predicted that its latest machine is the largest that a wind turbine will ever be. The primary argument for limiting the size of wind turbines is based on the squarecube law.

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